05Dec
05Dec
05Dec

What does it mean when scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code? When scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code, hypothetically, they quite literally mean it. All living organisms share a common ancestry, and an originator cell that contains the genetic coding and material that has been passed down throughout the organisms. 2. How does a universal genetic code relate to the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? A universal genetic code relates to the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth, simply by its name. The origin of life on Earth is thought to be from a single organism, which branched out to create everything there is today. A universal genetic code takes the similarities in organisms and compares them to suggest that each organism came from a single organism from early Earth. Of course, this is just a theory, but can support the documentation revolving around the origin of life. 3. How are self-replicating molecules, such as RNA molecules in the “RNA World” hypothesis, essential to the most popular hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? Self-replicating molecules such as RNA molecules in the “RNA World” hypothesis are essential to the most popular hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth because of the functions they’re believed to carry out. RNA molecules are believed to self-catalyze, and by doing so this opens the possibility that early RNA molecules could self-replicate without the aid of other organisms. If this was such a case—if RNA molecules could replicate and create more RNA molecules—this supports why all organisms share the same genetic code, and thus, aids in the RNA hypothesis. 4. How might similarities and differences in genetic codes, or the proteins built as a result of these codes, be used to determine how closely related different species are? Similarities or differences in genetic codes, or the proteins built by these codes, are set in their DNA sequences. The more similar two genetic codes are, say humans and chimpanzees, the more likely they are to have a common ancestor back from early Earth, as they share identical coding order. 5. Based on the amino acid sequence data for the Cytochrome-C protein, chimpanzees and humans share an identical coding sequence. What other species identified on the chart has a coding sequence that is most closely related to the humans and chimpanzees and most distantly related? Explain your answer. Based on the amino acid sequence data for the Cytochrome-C protein, chimpanzees and humans share an identical coding sequence. Another species identified on the chart that is similar to the two would be the Rhesus Monkey, with is completely identical with 0 differences to the humans/chimpanzees.

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